John S. Hilliard

John Stanley Hilliard (b. Hot Springs, Arkansas, October 29, 1947) is an American composer.

Born into a family of musical amateurs, John Hilliard began his musical training by studying piano at the age of 6 from his cousin, Barbara Dodson, a local piano teacher and composer. His father, Sherlon Hilliard (of Irish and Anglo-Saxon descent), possessed a fine tenor voice and was a popular gospel-style singer with their county Protestant Church of the Nazarene congregations. While his mother, Laurine H. Hilliard (of Scottish and Jewish descent), was an amateur accordionist and pianist. Hilliard’s grandfather, John Milton Hilliard, had also been well known as a congregational song leader (shaped-note tradition) for the rural areas of central Arkansas in the 1930s and 1940s. By age 11 Hilliard showed an interest in composing. At the age of 8, he had begun playing trumpet in the elementary band and was taught by the same elementary music teacher as President Bill Clinton, who was a childhood friend. They later both shared another influential music teacher, Virgil Spurlin, during their years together in the Hot Springs High School Band. In 1964 Hilliard played at all-state band under W. Francis McBeth, who would later become his first composition teacher for four years at Ouachita Baptist University, Arkadelphia, Arkansas. Hilliard would earn his Bachelor of Music degree there in 1969 in horn performance, education and theory-composition. He studied piano, horn, trumpet, cello and conducting during these years at Ouachita. Hilliard later, in 1972, received his Masters of Music degree in composition and conducting at Virginia Commonwealth University. During his years at VCU, Hilliard studied briefly with famed African-American composer William Grant Still.

Hilliard’s music has had performances in Austria, Canada, Germany, Hong Kong, Ireland, Japan, the Netherlands, South America, the United Kingdom and the United States including performances at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, Merkin Concert Hall and at numerous new music festivals. His orchestral works have been performed by the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra and the Richmond Symphony Orchestra. His piano concerto No. 1, „Okeanos“, was premiered in 2000 by pianist Eric Ruple with the James Madison University Wind Symphony at the College Band Directors National Association Conference. Hilliard’s second piano concerto was commissioned by the Staunton Music Festival (Virginia) and had its premiere there at the Blackfriars Playhouse in 2004, with the composer conducting. In 2006, the James Madison University Wind Symphony premiered his „Variations on a Theme from ‚L’oiseau de feu'“.

Hilliard has composed four symphonies; three piano concerti; a trumpet concerto; sonatas for piano, violin, and cello; works for wind ensemble; and various other chamber works, including two song cycles. In 1973 he studied composition with George B. Wilson, University of Michigan at Interlochen. Hilliard received his Doctor of Musical Arts degree from Cornell University, Ithaca, N.Y. in 1983. From 1981-1985 he did four years post-doctoral composition study at Southern Methodist University with Donald Erb, and one year of study at the University of Texas, Austin with the American expatriate French composer, Eugene Kurtz, of Jobert publications, Paris, France.

In 1973, during his years working at the Interlochen Arts Academy, Interlochen, Michigan, Hilliard was encouraged by Thor Johnson, then conductor of the Nashville Symphony, by his requesting him to compose a work for the Interlochen Arts Academy Orchestra. This was Hilliard’s „The Grand Traverse: Concerto for Trumpet and Orchestra“, which was premiered at Interlochen’s Corson Auditorium by the orchestra in 1975 with Byron Hanson conducting and John Lindenau on solo trumpet.

In 1981 Hilliard was awarded a summer residency position and commission from the Virginia Center for the Creative Arts. His first symphony was chosen in an American Orchestra League competition for premiere by Leonard Slatkin for the Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra in 1989. Hilliard has won annual ASCAP Awards, a commission from the International Horn Society and the first-place award in the Virginia Music Teachers Association’s commissioned composer contest for 1992.

President Bill Clinton requested Hilliard to compose a fanfare for his first inauguration in 1993.

The Far East and Asian music have had a profound influence upon his life and composing. Hilliard studied and played in Cornell University’s Javanese gamelan under the leadership of Jennifer Lindsay. In 1995, Hilliard was given an Artistic Fellow residency grant by the Japan Foundation in Tokyo, studying shakuhachi with Christopher Yohmei Blasdel and gagaku in Nara at the Kasuga Shrine. He resided in Tokyo, Koto-Ku district, Fukagawa area. In 1996 he studied Indian and Balinese music in California. Two years later, Hilliard was granted a Senior Fulbright Award to teach and compose in Hong Kong for 1998-99.

He has lived parts of 12 years in Japan. During his years there, in addition to studying Japanese traditional music, he practiced Zen Buddhism (zazen in Nara). He is both a Buddhist and a Christian. Hilliard is also a follower of „Eastern religions“. He is a member of the Episcopal Church (U.S.) since 1986. Hilliard is married to Japanese abstract artist Mineko Yoshida.

Hilliard has served on the music faculty at the Interlochen Center for the Arts, National Music Camp (1967–1990), Cornell University, and Washington State University. He taught music composition for 14 summers at the Interlochen Arts Camp (formerly the National Music Camp), and for three years was on the faculty and administrative staff of the Interlochen Arts Academy, during which time he founded and conducted their first contemporary music group „The 20th-Century Chamber Players“. At Cornell, Hilliard was the conductor of the Cornell Chamber Orchestra and Assistant Conductor of the Cornell Symphony under Edward Murray. He retired from teaching in 2013 and is Emeritus Professor of Music and former Resident Composer at the School of Music of James Madison University. Among Hilliard’s teachers include Pulitzer Prize-winning composer Karel Husa, Donald Erb, W. Francis McBeth, Robert Moffat Palmer, George B. Wilson, William Grant Still and Ned Rorem (Pulitzer Prize, 1976). In addition, he has attended masterclasses with Ezra Laderman, Alan Hovhaness, Włodzimierz Kotoński, George Crumb, Homer Keller, Milton Babbitt, Ben Johnston, Joseph Schwantner, Paul Creston and Olivier Messiaen. He earned a doctorate in Music Composition from Cornell University at Ithaca, New York in 1983. Numbered among his students is Joel McNeely, a noted film composer for Disney studios and George Lucas. Other students include Steve Van Dam (founder of the band Everything), David Castle (songwriter), Terry Vosbein (composer for La Cite Internationale des Arts, Paris), Larry Clark (Vice Pres., Editor-in-Chief, Carl Fischer Music), Evan Duffy, and Butch Taylor (formerly of the Dave Matthews Band).

The Augsburg Mozartfest commissioned Hilliard to complete one of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart’s unfinished manuscripts, one for violoncello and cembalo that had been started in 1782, the year Mozart married. Hilliard completed the manuscript fragment in the style of Mozart and added his own set of variations from the fragments. This set was premiered May 2004, in Augsburg, Germany, by cellist James Wilson and pianist Carsten Schmidt.

On January 31, 2007 a concert of Hilliard’s music was presented at the John F. Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts, which included the Washington, D.C. premiere of his second piano concerto performed by guest pianist Carsten Schmidt of Sarah Lawrence College. In 2010 the James Madison University orchestra, with Lori Piitz, performed a movement of his Third Piano Concerto in the new Forbes Performing Arts Center on the campus of James Madison University. Also they have premiered his Eleison for large women’s chorus and harps, 2 pianos, four cello and four doublebasses. The text made use of English, Greek and Hebrew.

In 2013 the university sponsored a special celebratory concert in his honor which was attended by 30 former composition students, and performed mostly by JMU current music majors.

Since retiring, Hilliard has completed a commission for the World Saxophone Congress for premiere in France in 2015. He adjudicated for the Washington International Composition competition and has taught as a substitute at the University of Virginia in Charlottesville.

PUNTO Experimental Music Ensemble

PUNTO Experimental Music Ensemble is a contemporary music group active in Miami, Florida.

The ensemble, founded by Venezuelan composer Gustavo Matamoros and Cuban composer Armando Rodriguez Ruidiaz, organized concerts in venues such as the Miami Dade Community College, the Miami Dade Downtown Library and the Cameo Theater in Miami Beach during the 1990s. Most recently, after a decade of inactivity, the members of PUNTO have reunited to continue their activities with the presentation of FLOW, an electroacoustic installation created by Gustavo Matamoros and Armando Rodriguez Ruidiaz for the Listening Gallery of the South FLorida Composers Alliance. The installation was opened to the public on June 5, 2013.

The nature and mission of PUNTO was defined by its founders in the inaugural concert program as follows:

“Defined as an open setting where various creative tendencies converge to form a nucleus of artistic interaction and stimulation, PUNTO is a composer-based ensemble committed to the performance of works conceptual and experimental in nature. The group utilizes new and old technology to develop aural and visual materials which combine to convey the processes and ideas inherent in each piece.

Founded recently by composers Gustavo Matamoros and Armando Rodríguez, PUNTO provides its members with an outlet or point of departure for controlled experimentation with sound and other media. It attempts to solve questions of performance and presentation of new ideas related to sound and its essence. Its objectives are to approach performance from a different perspective, to set up sound-based situations that engage the mind and create a sense of presence, and to give way to the discovery and implementation of new art forms.”

During the years that PUNTO remained active, the ensemble acquired recognition from the Miami cultural community, as it is evidenced in its many concerts performed at different venues throughout the city. The group fulfilled its main purpose of presenting to the community an innovative repertoire that could challenge the mind of the audience and create awareness about new trends in music and art in general. In the words of Tim Smith, art reporter at the Sun Sentinel newspaper: “…On April 6 at the Cameo Theatre in Miami Beach, Punto, an ensemble formed by Subtropics director Gustavo Matamoros and composer Armando Rodriguez, will re-create works by Fluxus. And what’s Fluxus? It’s described as a “fusion of Spike Jones, gags, games vaudeville, Cage and Duchamp.” This is one of those only-at-Subtropics presentations aimed at challenging an audience aesthetic consciousness.”

Concerts organized and performed by PUNTO included:

Statistics: 2 world premieres, 2 florida premieres, 3 florida composers, 1 us composers, 3 hispanic composers. .”

Эктор (рыцарь)

Сэр Эктор (англ. Ector; иногда Гектор, Антор или Экторий) — отец сэра Кея и приёмный отец короля Артура в Артуриане. Т. Х. Уайт в «Короле былого и грядущего» называет владения сэра Эктора «Замок Дикого Леса» (англ. The Castle of the Forest Sauvage), более поздние писатели также использовали это название.

Эктор появляется в работах Робера де Борона и в цикле «Ланселот-Грааль», а также в позднейших адаптациях, таких как «Пост-Вульгата» и «Смерть Артура» Мэлори. В этих версиях Мерлин забирает Артура у его биологических родителей, короля Утера Пендрагона и Игрейны, и отдает под опеку Эктора. Мерлин скрывает истинное происхождение мальчика, и Эктор выращивает его вместе с Кеем как собственного сына. Когда Кей достигает возраста посвящения в рыцари, Артур, который младше на несколько лет, становится его оруженосцем.

Предвидя смерть Утера, Мерлин с помощью магии помещает в камень (в некоторых версиях — в наковальню) меч (иногда приравнивается к Экскалибуру), и вытащить его сможет только законный наследник престола. Когда Утер умирает, в Лондоне проводится турнир, призванный собрать всех потенциальных наследников; его посещают и Эктор с сыновьями. На турнире Кей ломает свой меч и отправляет Артура найти ему новый. Он проходит мимо Меча в Камне, не догадываясь о его значении, и легко извлекает его. Узнав об этом, Кей пытается присвоить заслугу Артура, но его ложь раскрывается, и в конце концов Эктор с Кеем первыми клянутся в верности новому королю. Оба становятся рыцарями Круглого стола и верно служат Артуру на протяжении всего его правления.

В ранних валлийских версиях имя отца Кая (Кея) — Кинир (валл. Cynyr).

List of international cricket five-wicket hauls at the Paikiasothy Saravanamuttu Stadium

P Sara Oval is a sports ground in Colombo, Sri Lanka, which has hosted international cricket matches, along with many domestic games. It is the home of the Tamil Union Cricket and Athletic Club. It has hosted international cricket matches since 1982, the first Test at the ground taking place in between Sri Lanka and England in February of that year. and has been home to 20 Test matches in total. P Sara Oval has also staged 12 One Day International (ODI) matches, the first of which was in 1983 when the host Sri Lanka defeated Australia by 2 wickets.

In cricket, a five-wicket haul (also known as a „five-for“ or „fifer“) refers to a bowler taking five or more wickets in a single innings. This is regarded as a notable achievement. The first bowler to take a five-wicket haul in a Test match at P Sara Oval was Muttiah Muralitharan in 2002; he finished with bowling figures of 5 wicket hauls in both innings. Muralitharan currently holds most five-wicket hauls at P Sara Oval, with 4 five-wicket hauls. The best figures in Test cricket at P Sara Oval are 7 for 94, taken by Australia’s Shane Warne against Pakistan in October 2002. Kraigg Brathwaite of West Indies has taken the most recent five-wicket haul at P Sara Oval, with figures of 6 wickets for 29 runs against Sri Lanka in 22 October 2015. As of December 2016, fourteen bowlers have taken nineteen Test match five-wicket hauls at the ground.

There are no any ODI five-wicket hauls taken at P Sara Oval until December 2015.

Nonoxinol 9


klare, farblose bis hellgelbe, viskose Flüssigkeit


mischbar mit Wasser, Ethanol und pflanzlichen Ölen

1410 mg·kg−1 (LD50, Ratte, oral)

Nonoxinol 9, auch Nonoxynol 9, ist ein nichtionisches Tensid aus der Gruppe der Nonylphenolethoxylate. Es wird wegen seiner samenabtötenden (spermiziden) Wirkung als Wirkstoff in lokal anzuwendenden Verhütungsmitteln eingesetzt.

Nonoxinol 9 greift aufgrund seiner oberflächenaktiven Eigenschaften die Zellmembran des Spermiums an. Ist die Membran zerstört, sind die Spermien bewegungsunfähig. Nonoxinol 9 ist in vielen Cremes, Gelen, Verhütungszäpfchen und -schäumen enthalten.

Labortests ergaben, dass Nonoxinol 9 die Membran des HI-Virus angreift. Eine Schutzwirkung vor HIV-Infektionen besteht in vivo jedoch nicht, da eine durch Nonoxinol 9 geschädigte Scheidenschleimhaut gleichzeitig viel durchlässiger für alle Arten von Viren ist.

Auch bestimmte sexuell übertragbare Keime (wie etwa Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Treponema pallidum, Trichomonas vaginalis) werden teilweise in vitro durch Nonoxinol 9 gehemmt. Bei regelmäßiger Anwendung kann Nonoxinol 9 die Scheidenflora beeinträchtigen.

Nonoxinol 9 kann die Vaginalschleimhaut reizen und verletzen. Teilweise wurden bei Frauen, die regelmäßig Nonoxinol 9-haltige Mittel benutzten, Entzündungen, Wunden und sogar Geschwüre festgestellt. In einer amerikanischen Studie von 1993 zeigten Frauen, die zwei Wochen lang einmal am Tag ein Vaginalzäpfchen mit Nonoxinol 9 benutzten, bereits deutliche Störungen der Schleimhaut. Reizungen wurden vor allem an der Scheide und am Gebärmutterhals festgestellt.

Selten treten auch allergische Reaktionen auf.

Verwendet wird Nonoxinol 9 in der Gleitbeschichtung mancher Kondome sowie in Scheidengelen, -zäpfchen und -schäumen, die auch in Verbindung mit einem Diaphragma zur Empfängnisverhütung benutzt werden.

Ferner wird Nonoxinol 9 wegen seiner oberflächenaktiven Eigenschaften als pharmazeutischer Hilfsstoff verwendet.

Die Synthese erfolgt durch Umsetzung von 4-Nonylphenol mit 9 Mol Ethylenoxid. Es entsteht ein Gemisch aus Polyethylenglycolethern des 4-Nonylphenols, wobei die Kettenlänge ungefähr 4 bis 16 Ethylenoxid-Einheiten beträgt und im Mittel bei zirka 9 liegt.

Patentex Oval (D, A)

a-gen 53 (D, außer Vertrieb)



Rettungshubschrauber Christoph 32

Rettungshubschrauber (RTH, Rettungs-Transport-Hubschrauber) sind speziell ausgerüstete Hubschrauber, die in der Luftrettung als Notarztzubringer im Rahmen des Rendezvous-Systems („Primär-Einsatz“) und als Verlegungsmittel für Klinikpatienten („Sekundär-Einsatz“) dienen. In Österreich werden sie überwiegend als Notarzthubschrauber (NAH) bezeichnet.

Notarzt-Einsatz-Hubschrauber (NEH) dagegen sind reine Notarztzubringer, entsprechen dem am Boden eingesetzten Notarzteinsatzfahrzeug und können keine Patienten transportieren. Im Gegensatz zu den Rettungshubschraubern werden sie nur selten vorgehalten.

Des Weiteren gibt es Großraum-Rettungshubschrauber, die mehrere Patienten gleichzeitig transportieren können.

Die Mindestausstattung orientiert sich hinsichtlich der medizinischen Geräte, Medikamente und Materialien am Notarztwagen. In Europa ist sie durch die EN 13718 geregelt. Damit kann eine Versorgung vor Ort und während des Transportes auf notfallmedizinischem Niveau erfolgen.

Für spezielle Anforderungen kann die Ausrüstung auch erweitert werden. Zum Beispiel ist am Meer oder im Gebirge (zum Einsatz bei Bergunfällen) am Rettungshubschrauber oft auch eine seitliche Winde angebracht, womit der Patient auf einer Trage im Flug hochgehoben und verladen werden kann. Ohne diese Winde kann der Patient zwar auch mit dem Hubschrauber hochgezogen werden, dann muss aber der Hubschrauber später landen, um den Patienten auch verladen zu können.

RTH wartet auf den Patienten.

RTH im Einsatz

Heck eines RTH mit Krankentrage und Alpinausrüstung

Innenansicht eines RTH

Innenansicht eines RTH

Platz des Notarztes

Der Aktionsradius beträgt typischerweise 50 bis 70 km.

Die Besatzung eines deutschen RTH besteht in der Regel aus dem Piloten, einem Notarzt und einem HEMS Crew Member, einem speziell ausgebildeten Rettungsassistenten. Bei bestimmten RTH-Typen gehört zur fliegerischen Besatzung zusätzlich ein Bordwart. Fallweise werden auch Praktikanten mitgenommen.

Pilot und ggf. Bordwart werden in der Regel vom Betreiber gestellt. Der HEMS Crew Member ist oft Angestellter der Hilfsorganisation, mit der der Betreiber eine Partnerschaft eingegangen ist, selten bei einem Krankenhaus oder dem Betreiber selbst angestellt (Ausnahme etwa die Hubschrauber der Bundeswehr). Der Notarzt ist ein Arzt eines nahegelegenen Krankenhauses bzw. des Krankenhauses, an dem der RTH stationiert ist. In vielen Fällen leistet er in der einsatzfreien Zeit normalen Stationsdienst.

Durch die vorhandenen Hubschrauber wird ein Großteil des bundesdeutschen Gebiets abgedeckt.

In Österreich werden Rettungshubschrauber mit einem Notarzt, einem Piloten, sowie einem zum HEMS Crew Member ausgebildeten Notfallsanitäter besetzt. Bei einigen RTHs, die vorwiegend in alpinem Gelände eingesetzt werden, ist als viertes Besatzungsmitglied ein ebenfalls speziell geschulter Bergretter an Bord. Hauptsächlich aus finanziellen Gründen wird aber auch auf diesen Hubschraubern zunehmend die Besatzungszahl auf drei reduziert, in diesem Fall müssen die Notfallsanitäter die Bergretter-Ausbildung, sowie eine Flugretter-Schulung absolvieren.

Home for Christmas (NSYNC album)

Home for Christmas is a seasonal album released exclusively in the United States by American boy band NSYNC. The album was released on November 10, 1998, following the success of their debut album. On October 27, 1999, Home for Christmas was certified Double Platinum by the RIAA for shipment of two million copies in the United States.

Home for Christmas was released on September 30, 2002 in the United Kingdom as The Meaning of Christmas on Ariola Express with an altered track listing. „Merry Christmas, Happy Holidays“ was released as a single in the United States, and in Germany as well, due to its inclusion on the group’s German seasonal album, The Winter Album.

As of December 2014, Home for Christmas has sold 2.8 million copies in the United States, making it the fifteenth best-selling Christmas/holiday album in the U.S. since Nielsen SoundScan started tracking music sales in 1991. The album has sold over 4 million copies worldwide.[citation needed]

Construction grammar

In linguistics, construction grammar groups a number of models of grammar that all subscribe to the idea that knowledge of a language is based on a collection of „form and function pairings“. The „function“ side covers what is commonly understood as meaning, content, or intent; it usually extends over both conventional fields of semantics and pragmatics.

Such pairs are learnt by hearing them being used frequently enough by others. Uses of constructions may happen and be acquired in mainstream or everyday language, but also in linguistic subcultures that are using a sociolect, dialect, or in formal contexts using standard languages or jargon associated with greater sociolinguistic prestige in comparison to plain language.

Construction grammar (often abbreviated CxG) is thus a kind of metalinguistic model, letting the door open to a variety of linguistic theories. It is typically associated with cognitive linguistics, partly because many of the linguists that are involved in construction grammar are also involved in cognitive linguistics, and partly because construction grammar and cognitive linguistics share many theoretical and philosophical foundations.

Historically, the notion of construction grammar developed out of the ideas of „global rules“ and „transderivational rules“ in generative semantics, together with the generative semantic idea of a grammar as a constraint satisfaction system. George Lakoff’s „Syntactic Amalgams“ paper in 1974 (Chicago Linguistics Society, 1974) posed a challenge for the idea of transformational derivation.

Construction grammar was spurred on by the development of Cognitive Semantics, beginning in 1975 and extending through the 1980s. Lakoff’s 1977 paper, Linguistic Gestalts (Chicago Linguistic Society, 1977) was an early version of CxG, arguing that the meaning of the whole was not a compositional function of the meaning of the parts put together locally. Instead, he suggested, constructions themselves must have meanings.

Construction grammar was developed in the 1980s by linguists such as Charles Fillmore, Paul Kay, and George Lakoff. Construction grammar was developed in order to handle cases that intrinsically went beyond the capacity of generative grammar.

The earliest study was „There-Constructions,“ which appeared as Case Study 3 in George Lakoff’s Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things. It argued that the meaning of the whole was not a function of the meanings of the parts, that odd grammatical properties of Deictic There-constructions followed from the pragmatic meaning of the construction, and that variations on the central construction could be seen as simple extensions using form-meaning pairs of the central construction.

Fillmore et al.’s (1988) paper on the English let alone construction was a second classic. These two papers propelled cognitive linguists into the study of CxG.

In Construction grammar, like in general semiotics, the grammatical construction is a pairing of form and content. The formal aspect of a construction is typically described as a syntactic template, but the form covers more than just syntax, as it also involves phonological aspects, such as prosody and intonation. The content covers semantic as well as pragmatic meaning.

The semantic meaning of a grammatical construction is made up of conceptual structures postulated in cognitive semantics: Image-schemas, frames, conceptual metaphors, conceptual metonymies, prototypes of various kinds, mental spaces, and bindings across these (called „blends“). Pragmatics just becomes the cognitive semantics of communication — the modern version of the old Ross-Lakoff performative hypothesis from the 1960s.

The form and content are symbolically linked in the sense advocated by Langacker.

Thus a construction is treated like a sign in which all structural aspects are integrated parts and not distributed over different modules as they are in the componential model. Consequentially, not only constructions that are lexically fixed, like many idioms, but also more abstract ones like argument structure schemata, are pairings of form and conventionalized meaning. For instance, the ditransitive schema [S V IO DO] is said to express semantic content X CAUSES Y TO RECEIVE Z, just like kill means X CAUSES Y TO DIE.

In Construction grammar, a grammatical construction, regardless of its formal or semantic complexity and make up, is a pairing of form and meaning. Thus words are instances of constructions. Indeed, construction grammarians argue that all pairings of form and meaning are constructions, including phrase structures, idioms, words and even morphemes.

Unlike the componential model, Construction grammar denies any strict distinction between the two and proposes a syntax-lexicon continuum. The argument goes that words and complex constructions are both pairs of form and meaning and differ only in internal symbolic complexity. Instead of being discrete modules and thus subject to very different processes they form the extremes of a continuum (from regular to idiosyncratic): syntax>subcategorization frame>idiom>morphology>syntactic category>word/lexicon (these are the traditional terms; construction grammars use a different terminology).

In Construction grammar the grammar of a language is made up of taxonomic networks of families of constructions, which are based on the same principles as those of the conceptual categories known from cognitive linguistics, such as inheritance, prototypicality, extensions, and multiple parenting.

Four different models are proposed in relation to how information is stored in the taxonomies:

All four models are advocated by different construction grammarians, but since the late 1990s there has been a shift towards a general preference for the usage-based model.[citation needed] The shift towards the usage-based approach in Construction grammar has inspired the development of several corpus-based methodologies of constructional analysis (for example, collostructional analysis).

As Construction grammar is based on schemas and taxonomies, it does not operate with dynamic rules of derivation. Rather, it is monotonic.

Because Construction grammar does not operate with surface derivations from underlying structures, it rejects constructional polysemy and adheres to functionalist linguist Dwight Bolinger’s principle of no synonymy, on which Adele Goldberg elaborates in her book.

This means that construction grammarians argue, for instance, that active and passive versions of the same proposition are not derived from an underlying structure, but are instances of two different constructions. As constructions are pairings of form and meaning[citation needed], active and passive versions of the same proposition are not synonymous, but display differences in content: in this case the pragmatic content.

As mentioned above, Construction grammar is a „family“ of theories rather than one unified theory. There are a number of formalized Construction grammar frameworks. Some of these are:

Berkeley Construction Grammar (BCG: formerly also simply called Construction Grammar in upper case) focuses on the formal aspects of constructions and makes use of a unification-based framework for description of syntax, not unlike Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar. Its proponents/developers include Charles Fillmore, Paul Kay, Laura Michaelis, and to a certain extent Ivan Sag. Immanent within BCG works like Fillmore and Kay 1995 and Michaelis and Ruppenhofer 2001 is the notion that phrasal representations—embedding relations—should not be used to represent combinatoric properties of lexemes or lexeme classes. For example, BCG abandons the traditional practice of using non-branching domination (NP over N‘ over N) to describe undetermined nominals that function as NPs, instead introducing a determination construction that requires (‚asks for‘) a non-maximal nominal sister and a lexical ‚maximality‘ feature for which plural and mass nouns are unmarked. BCG also offers a unification-based representation of ‚argument structure‘ patterns as abstract verbal lexeme entries (‚linking constructions‘). These linking constructions include transitive, oblique goal and passive constructions. These constructions describe classes of verbs that combine with phrasal constructions like the VP construction but contain no phrasal information in themselves.

In the mid-2000s, several of the developers of BCG, including Charles Fillmore, Paul Kay, Ivan Sag and Laura Michaelis, collaborated in an effort to improve the formal rigor of BCG and clarify its representational conventions. The result was Sign Based Construction Grammar (SBCG). SBCG is based on a multiple-inheritance hierarchy of typed feature structures. The most important type of feature structure in SBCG is the sign, with subtypes word, lexeme and phrase. The inclusion of phrase within the canon of signs marks a major departure from traditional syntactic thinking. In SBCG, phrasal signs are licensed by correspondence to the mother of some licit construct of the grammar. A construct is a local tree with signs at its nodes. Combinatorial constructions define classes of constructs. Lexical class constructions describe combinatoric and other properties common to a group of lexemes. Combinatorial constructions include both inflectional and derivational constructions. SBCG is both formal and generative; while cognitive-functional grammarians have often opposed their standards and practices to those of formal, generative grammarians, there is in fact no incompatibility between a formal, generative approach and a rich, broad-coverage, functionally based grammar. It simply happens that many formal, generative theories are descriptively inadequate grammars. SBCG is generative in a way that prevailing syntax-centered theories are not: its mechanisms are intended to represent all of the patterns of a given language, including idiomatic ones; there is no ‚core‘ grammar in SBCG. SBCG a licensing-based theory, as opposed to one that freely generates syntactic combinations and uses general principles to bar illicit ones: a word, lexeme or phrase is well formed if and only if it is described by a lexeme or construction. Recent SBCG works have expanded on the lexicalist model of idiomatically combining expressions sketched out in Sag 2012.

The type of construction grammar associated with linguists like Goldberg and Lakoff looks mainly at the external relations of constructions and the structure of constructional networks. In terms of form and function, this type of construction grammar puts psychological plausibility as its highest desideratum. It emphasizes experimental results and parallels with general cognitive psychology. It also draws on certain principles of cognitive linguistics. In the Goldbergian strand, constructions interact with each other in a network via four inheritance relations: polysemy link, subpart link, metaphorical extension, and finally instance link.

Sometimes, Ronald Langacker’s Cognitive grammar framework is described as a type of construction grammar. Cognitive grammar deals mainly with the semantic content of constructions, and its central argument is that conceptual semantics is primary to the degree that form mirrors, or is motivated by, content. Langacker argues that even abstract grammatical units like part-of-speech classes are semantically motivated and involve certain conceptualizations.

William A. Croft’s radical construction grammar is designed for typological purposes and takes into account cross-linguistic factors. It deals mainly with the internal structure of constructions. Radical Construction Grammar is totally non-reductionist, and Croft argues that constructions are not derived from their parts, but that the parts are derived from the constructions they appear in. Thus, in Radical Construction Grammar, constructions are likened to Gestalts. Radical Construction Grammar rejects the idea that syntactic categories, roles, and relations are universal and argues that they are not only language-specific, but also construction specific. Thus, there are no universals that make reference to formal categories, since formal categories are language- and construction-specific. The only universals are to be found in the patterns concerning the mapping of meaning onto form. Radical Construction Grammar rejects the notion of syntactic relations altogether and replaces them with semantic relations. Like Goldbergian/Lakovian construction grammar and Cognitive Grammar, Radical Construction Grammar is closely related to cognitive linguistics, and like Cognitive Grammar, Radical Construction Grammar appears to be based on the idea that form is semantically motivated.

Embodied construction grammar (ECG), which is being developed by the group at ICSI, UC Berkeley, and the University of Hawaiʻi, particularly including Benjamin Bergen and Nancy Chang, adopts the basic constructionist definition of a grammatical construction, but emphasizes the relation of constructional semantic content to embodiment and sensorimotor experiences. A central claim is that the content of all linguistic signs involve mental simulations and are ultimately dependent on basic image schemas of the kind advocated by Mark Johnson and George Lakoff and so ECG aligns itself with cognitive linguistics. Like Construction Grammar, Embodied Construction Grammar makes use of a unification-based model of representation. A non-technical introduction to the NTL theory behind Embodied Construction Grammar as well as the theory itself and a variety of applications can be found in Jerome Feldman’s From Molecule to Metaphor: A Neural Theory of Language (MIT Press, 2006).

Fluid construction grammar (FCG) was designed by Luc Steels and his collaborators for doing experiments on . FCG is a fully operational and computationally implemented formalism for construction grammars and proposes a uniform mechanism for parsing and production. Moreover, it has been demonstrated through robotic experiments that FCG grammars can be grounded in embodiment and sensorimotor experiences. FCG integrates many notions from contemporary computational linguistics such as feature structures and unification-based language processing. Constructions are considered bidirectional and hence usable both for parsing and production. Processing is flexible in the sense that it can even cope with partially ungrammatical or incomplete sentences. FCG is called ‚fluid‘ because it acknowledges the premise that language users constantly change and update their grammars. The research on FCG is conducted at and the AI Lab at the Vrije Universiteit Brussel.

In addition there are several construction grammarians who operate within the general framework of Construction grammar without affiliating themselves with any specific Construction grammar program. There is a growing interest in the diachronic aspect of grammatical constructions and thus in the importation of methods and ideas from grammaticalization studies. Another area of growing interest is the pragmatics of pragmatic constructions. This is probably one of the reasons why the usage-based model is gaining popularity among construction grammarians. Another area of increasing interest among construction grammarians is that of language acquisition which is mainly due to Michael Tomasello’s work. Mats Andrén coined the term multimodal constructions to account for constructions that incorporate both (conventionalized) gesture and speech.

Dave Langan

* Senior club appearances and goals counted for the domestic league only.

David Francis „Dave“ Langan (born 15 February 1957 in Dublin) is an Irish former professional footballer who played as a right-back for the Republic of Ireland, for whom he won 26 caps. Langan won his first cap against Turkey in April 1978 and was a regular in the squad until he sustained a knee injury in a 3–2 victory over France.

For four years he was in the international wilderness until his move to Oxford regenerated the form that earned him his first caps. He remained an ever present throughout the course of the qualifying campaign for UEFA Euro 1988 in which he played four games.

Unfortunately, despite the rather somewhat public outcry, Langan was dropped for the adventure in the summer of ’88 in Germany and there ended his international career.

Langan played youth football with the Cherry Orchard club and was a youth international before going to England to join Derby County, for whom he made his debut in 1977 as a 19-year-old and went on to make over 150 senior appearances. Jim Smith then paid a club record £350,000 to take him to Birmingham City, for whom he played over 100 games, but when his career was disrupted by injury such that he missed a full 18 months, he was released by manager Ron Saunders. Jim Smith, by then managing Oxford United, signed him. He played 136 games for Oxford, winning the Second Division championship in 1984–85 and the League Cup the following year. He later played for A.F.C. Bournemouth and Peterborough United, but his knee and back injuries put an early end to his career. He is now registered disabled.

On 14 June 1999, a benefit night was held in Ballyfermot for Dave in which his old team mate Paul McGrath showed up.

In late 2006, an interview with Langan entitled „I Was Just Unlucky“ hit the press. This article inspired Ireland fans, many remembering that Langan „would have run through a wall for Ireland,“ to start campaigning to get Langan a testimonial. This campaign picked up speed in early 2008 when some of the people at its forefront went on RTÉ radio and started an online petition. This petition had over 1,000 signatures at the time this was written.

In 2012 Langan’s autobiography „Running through Walls“ was released.


Een Paratiba is de ‚klassieker‘ van het Braziliaanse voetbal tussen Coritiba en Paraná Clube. De laatste komt voort uit een fusie van twee oudere teams. Met die fusie werd Paraná Clube in één klap een van de sterkste teams van Paraná, ook omdat de twee traditionele topteams Coritiba en Atlético Paranaense in de jaren 1990 een dip beleefden. Paraná Clube domineerde de staatskampioenschappen in het begin van haar bestaan, meestal een van de andere twee grootheden verslaand in de finale. Op die manier zijn de onderlinge wedstrijden al snel klassiekers geworden. Vandaag de dag is de Paratiba na de Atletiba (wedstrijd tussen Coritiba en Atlético Paranaense) de grootste klassieker van de staat.

Het begin van de rivaliteit ligt in het jaar 1991. Een jaar eerder had Paraná Clube in haar eerste wedstrijd ooit, tevens de eerste Paratiba ooit, met 1-0 verloren van Coritiba. In 1991 kwamen de twee clubs elkaar tegen in de finale van het Campeonato Paranaense. Coritiba moest winnen en nam ook de leiding door een doelpunt van Pachequinho, maar aan het einde van de wedstrijd maakt Ednelson gelijk voor Paraná Clube en wint laatstgenoemde de eerste titel uit de geschiedenis.

In 1996 krijgt Coritiba de kans op wraak, maar weer is Paraná Clube te sterk. Zowel in eigen huis als uit in het Couto Pereira wint Paraná, en pakt daarmee alweer de vierde titel op rij. In 1999 lukt het Coritiba dan wel om in de finale van Paraná te winnen. In de openingswedstrijd van het toernooi wint Paraná nog met 6-2, maar in de eerste finalewedstrijd wint Coritiba met 1-0. De terugwedstrijd eindigt in 2-2, en dus heeft Coritiba in de derde en laatste wedstrijd op neutraal terrein genoeg aan een gelijkspel. Paraná komt nog voor met 2-0, maar aan het eind van de wedstrijd staat het 2-2, en heeft Coritiba de eindoverwinning te pakken. Dit moment tekent bovendien het einde van de dominantie van Paraná in het Campeonato Paranaense en de Paratiba tot op dit moment.

De grootste overwinning staat op naam van Paraná Clube, dat op 6 april 2002 met 6-1 won van Coritiba. Coritiba’s grootste overwinning zijn de 4-0 van 5 mei 1991 en 23 juni 1996. Veertien keer speelden de twee teams 1-1, zes keer 0-0 en zeventien keer won een van de teams met 1-0. Coritiba bleef een keer 428 en een keer 421 zonder tegendoelpunt in de onderlinge confrontaties, terwijl Paraná niet verder kwam dan 347 minuten.