Strażnica WOP Przywarówka

Strażnica WOP Przywarówka – podstawowy pododdział graniczny Wojsk Ochrony Pogranicza pełniący służbę ochronną na granicy polsko-czechosłowackiej.

Strażnica została sformowana w 1945 roku w strukturze 42 komendy odcinka jako 193 strażnica WOP (Przywarówka) o stanie 56 żołnierzy. Kierownictwo strażnicy stanowili: komendant strażnicy, zastępca komendanta do spraw polityczno-wychowawczych i zastępca do spraw zwiadu. Strażnica składała się z dwóch drużyn strzeleckich, drużyny fizylierów, drużyny łączności i gospodarczej. Etat przewidywał także instruktora do tresury psów służbowych oraz instruktora sanitarnego.

W związku z reorganizacją oddziałów WOP w 1948 roku, strażnica podporządkowana została dowódcy 55 batalionu OP.

W 1954 roku wprowadzono nową numerację strażnic, a strażnica WOP Przywarówka otrzymała nr 198. W 1956 roku rozpoczęto numerowanie strażnic na poziomie brygady. Strażnica I kategorii Przywarówka była 12. w 3 Brygadzie Wojsk Ochrony Pogranicza.

W 1963 roku rozformowano strażnicę WOP Przywarówka , a jej odcinek przekazano do ochrony strażnicy WOP Lipnica Wielka.

W 1960 roku 10 strażnica WOP Przywarówka III kategorii ochraniała odcinek granicy państwowej o długości 10 802 m od znaku granicznego (wł.) III/62 do zn. gr.III/82 (wył.) .

Strażnice sąsiednie:

[176] Barwinek • [190] Chochołów/ Witów? • [191] Chyżne • [174] Jasiel • [175] Jaśliska/Lipowiec • Jaworzynka • [186] Jurgów • [178] Konieczna • [189] Rostki/Kiry • [195] Korbielów • [188] Kuźnice/Kościelisko • Krężelka • [192] Winiarczykówka/Lipnica Wielka • [172] Łupków • [187] Skała/Łysa Polana • [181] Muszyna • [180] Muszynka • [185] Niedzica • [177] Ożenna • [183] Piwniczna • Poniwiec • [193] Przywarówka • [173] Radoszyce • [170] Riztko Górne/Roztoka Górna • [198] Kolonia/Rycerka • [184] Szczawnica • [197] Glinka/Soblówka • [169] Wetlina • Wisła • [171] Wola Michowa • [179] Wysowa • [194] Widły Czatoza/Zawoja • [196] Złatna • [199] Zwardoń • [182] Żegiestów

Chochołów • Glinka • Jurgów • Niedzica • Winiarczykówka • Zwardoń

Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery

The Battle of Forts Clinton and Montgomery was an American Revolutionary War battle fought in the highlands of the Hudson River valley, not far from West Point, on October 6, 1777. British forces under the command of General Sir Henry Clinton captured Fort Clinton and Fort Montgomery, and then dismantled the Hudson River Chain. The purpose of the attack was to create a diversion to draw American troops from the army of General Horatio Gates, whose army was opposing British General John Burgoyne’s attempt to gain control of the Hudson.

The forts were garrisoned by about 600 Continental Army troops under the command of two brothers, General (and Governor of New York) George Clinton, and General James Clinton, while General Israel Putnam led additional troops at nearby Peekskill, New York. (This battle is also sometimes called the „battle of the Clintons“ due to the number of participants with that name. The brothers were probably not related to Sir Henry.) Using a series of feints, Henry Clinton fooled Putnam into withdrawing most of his troops to the east, and then he landed over 2,000 troops on the west side of the Hudson to assault the two forts.

After several hours of hiking through the hilly terrain, Clinton divided his troops to stage simultaneous assaults on the two forts. Although the approach to Fort Montgomery was contested by a company armed with a small field piece, they attacked the two forts at nearly the same time and captured them after a relatively short battle. More than half the defenders were killed, wounded, or captured. The British followed up this success with raids as far north as Kingston before being recalled to New York City. The action came too late to be of any assistance to Burgoyne, who surrendered his army on October 17. The only notable consequences of the action were the casualties suffered and the British destruction of the two forts on their departure.

The Hudson River valley was a strategically critical area throughout the American Revolutionary War. Through this area moved supplies, men and materials between the New England states and those further south, something that became even more vitally important when the British largely abandoned New England as an objective of military control later in the war. In June 1777, General John Burgoyne began an attempt to gain control of this key area by moving south from the British province of Quebec. After his early success at Ticonderoga, his campaign become bogged down in logistical difficulties, not reaching Saratoga, New York until mid-September. Burgoyne held expectations that his campaign would be supported by military forces based in New York City under the command of General William Howe, and that the forces would meet at Albany, about 40 miles (64 km) south of Saratoga.

Apparently as result of poor communications with Lord Germain, Britain’s Secretary of State for the Colonies and the political official in charge of the conflict, General Howe decided instead to attempt the capture of Philadelphia, and sailed south with much of his army in July, leaving Sir Henry Clinton in command at New York. Howe’s instructions to General Clinton were primarily to hold New York City, and to only engage in offensive operations that were consistent with that goal. His instructions to Clinton on July 30 included a promise that reinforcements would arrive (but without any promised time), and that Clinton should consider making a move „in favor or General Burgoyne’s approaching Albany, with security to Kingsbridge“ if the opportunity presented itself. A letter from Howe reached Burgoyne on August 3 informing him of his move to Philadelphia, and of Clinton’s instructions. Clinton wrote a letter on September 12 (received by Burgoyne on the 21st, after the Battle of Freeman’s Farm) that he would „make a push at [Fort] Montgomery in about ten days“ if „you think 2000 men can assist you effectually“.

The highland region of the Hudson River valley (near West Point) was defended by Continental Army troops and state militia under the command of Major General Israel Putnam, who was based at Peekskill. Several miles upriver from Peekskill, just above the Popolopen Gorge where Popolopen Creek enters the Hudson, the Americans had placed a chain across the Hudson to prevent British naval vessels from sailing further upriver. The chain’s western end was guarded by Fort Montgomery (named for the late General Richard Montgomery), which also overlooked the gorge to the south. Also on the west side of the river, south of the gorge, they had established Fort Clinton (probably named for General James Clinton). Fort Montgomery, which was still undergoing construction, was under the command of General (and Governor of New York) George Clinton, while Fort Clinton was under the command of his older brother James. Their combined forces numbered about 600.

The primary camp at Peekskill, which any British naval movements would need to pass, had roughly 600 men. Of the men at the three sites, about 1,000 were regular troops, while the remainder were short-term New York militia. Putnam’s forces had originally been larger, but General Washington had ordered some of Putnam’s troops to assist either his (Washington’s) defense against Howe or Gates‘ defense against Burgoyne, and a number of local militia companies had been dismissed when Howe’s movements became known. Putnam received word of the arrival of transports in New York on September 29, and wrote Governor Clinton for assistance, who immediately came south from Kingston to take charge of the forts.

In mid-September (around the time he wrote the letter to Burgoyne), Sir Henry Clinton had around 7,000 men, including around 3,000 poorly trained Loyalists, to defend New York City. His letter to Burgoyne had been predicated on the expectation that the expected reinforcements would arrive in time for him to make a move up the Hudson within ten days. On September 29, he received a letter from Burgoyne (written after Freeman’s Farm) in response to his that was a direct plea for action.

… an attack or even menace of an attack on Fort Montgomery must be of great use …

By the end of September, 1,700 additional troops were landed from the fleet arriving at New York. On October 3, Sir Henry started up the Hudson River with 3,000 men in three frigates and a number of smaller vessels. The next day, he landed some troops near Tarrytown as a feint to draw Putnam’s troops from Peekskill. These troops marched about and then reboarded the ships, which continued north. He then made a similar feinting maneuver at Verplanck’s Point, just three miles (4.8 km) south of Peekskill on October 5, where he dislodged a poorly manned American outpost. These feinting maneuvers completely fooled Putnam, who drew his troops back into the eastern highlands and sent messages across the Hudson for reinforcements.

Shortly before this last movement, Sir Henry received a dispatch from Burgoyne. In it, Burgoyne explicitly appeals to Clinton for instruction on whether he should attempt to advance or retreat, based on the likelihood of Clinton’s arrival at Albany for support. He indicated that if he did not receive a response by October 12, he would be forced to retreat. (Clinton’s response, not written until October 7, was a markedly formal response, indicating that he was providing the requested diversion, and had no expectation of reaching Albany, adding that „Sir Henry Clinton cannot presume to give any Orders to General Burgoyne“, as Burgoyne outranked him. Fortunately for Clinton none of the three copies of this letter reached Burgoyne; all of the messengers carrying them were captured.)

On the foggy morning of October 6, Sir Henry Clinton landed 2,100 men at Stony Point on the west side of the Hudson and, with the assistance of a Loyalist guide, marched them up onto a local rise called the „Timp“. After descending the other side to a place called Doodletown, they encountered a scouting party that Governor Clinton had sent out for reconnaissance, which retreated toward Fort Clinton after a brief exchange of fire. Sir Henry then divided his force into two attack groups to take the forts. A force of about 900 men under Lieutenant Colonel Campbell, composed of the 52nd and 57th regiments, a detachment of Hessian chasseurs, and about 400 Loyalists led by Beverley Robinson, began the 7 miles (11 km) trek around the gorge toward Fort Montgomery, while Sir Henry waited with the remaining 1,200 men at Doodletown before starting on the trail to Fort Clinton in order to give Campbell time to make the longer journey before beginning simultaneous attacks on the two forts.

Governor Clinton, when alerted to the first skirmish, had immediately sent to Putnam for reinforcements. Shortly after sending that message he learned from scouts that Sir Henry’s forces were divided. While waiting for reinforcements (that never came because of Sir Henry’s successful feints) his brother James sent 100 men from Fort Clinton toward Doodletown, while he sent another company from Fort Montgomery to oppose Campbell’s force.

The detachment from Fort Montgomery numbered about 100 men, and included a small artillery piece commanded by Captain John Lamb. Setting up a defensive position about one mile (1.6 km) from the fort, they engaged Campbell’s tired forces with spirit. While they were eventually forced to retreat, they were able to spike the field piece before abandoning it to the British. After another stand closer to the fort, supported by 12-pound piece, they again retreated (again not before spiking the cannon). Due to this dogged defense, Campbell was not in position until about one hour before sunset (having left Doodletown at around 10 am). Offered the chance to surrender, Governor Clinton refused, and the battle was joined.

Campbell arrayed the Loyalists on the left, the German chasseurs in the center, and the British regiments on the right. Despite vigorous defense and the death of Colonel Campbell, the British forces broke into the fort, where they engaged in a near massacre to avenge the loss of Campbell and other officers. James Clinton narrowly escaped being killed by bayonet when his orderly book deflected the weapon’s point. He and a portion of the fort’s garrison escaped into the woods north of the fort.

The main approach to Fort Clinton was via a narrow strip of land about 400 yards (370 m) wide between a small lake and the river, which, in addition to being covered by the fort’s cannons, Governor Clinton had protected by placing abatis to impeded the British advance. Sir Henry sent the 63rd Foot around the lake to attack the fort from the northwest, while he first sent the light companies of the 7th and 26th regiments and a company of Anspach grenadiers against the main works, followed by the 26th Foot and a detachment from the 17th Light Dragoons, and then the remaining British and German companies. As at Fort Montgomery, the defenders were eventually overwhelmed. Those that surrendered, however, were not subjected to some of the savagery that took place to the north. A number of the garrison, including General Clinton, escaped by scrambling down the embankment to the river, where gunboats took them to safety across the river.

The British casualties were 41 killed and 142 wounded. The Americans had 26 officers and 237 enlisted men captured and about 75 killed and wounded apart from wounded prisoners; most of them from the garrison of Fort Clinton. The Americans were also forced to destroy a number of boats in the area, as unfavorable winds prevented them from escaping upriver. The next day Sir Henry sent a small detachment to Fort Constitution, a small outpost opposite West Point, and demanded its surrender. The lightly manned garrison at first refused, but it retreated on October 8 in the face of a larger attack force.

Governor Clinton and General Putnam strategized on their next move. Clinton opted to move north with troops on the western shore, as a defense against attacks further upriver, while Putnam would take steps to defend against attacks to the east.

Captain James Wallace had begun clearing the river of American-laid obstacles following the battle. By October 13 he was able to report that the river was clear as far north as Esopus. Sir Henry had by then returned to New York due to illness, leaving General John Vaughan in charge at the forts. Due to delays sending transports with reinforcements north, a flotilla carrying Vaughan and 1,700 men did not depart until October 15, with orders from Clinton to „proceed up Hudson’s river, to feel for General Burgoyne, to assist his operations“. They anchored that evening near Esopus. (It has been speculated that this movement had an effect on the surrender negotiations then ongoing at Saratoga. Due to the slow pace of even horse-based communications, it seems unlikely that General Gates was aware of this movement until after the surrender terms were agreed on October 17.) Vaughan’s troops burned Esopus the next day, and then sailed further north, where they raided the Livingston estate, seat of the noted Patriot family. The fleet was pursued by Putnam on the eastern shore. Putnam’s forces, which had grown considerably due to the arrival of militia companies from Connecticut, posed a significant enough threat to Vaughan that he then withdrew back to the boats.

On October 17, Sir Henry received a request for 3,000 men from General Howe (probably sent after Washington’s failed attack on Germantown) to support the occupation of Philadelphia. As the New York garrison was the already thinned by the operation on the Hudson, Clinton recalled Vaughan and the garrison holding the two forts. The forts were destroyed and the troops evacuated on October 26.

The site of Fort Clinton was largely demolished to make way for U.S. Route 9W and the Bear Mountain Bridge, which was completed in 1924. What remains is preserved within the bounds of Bear Mountain State Park, which also includes the ghost town of Doodletown. Fort Montgomery is a National Historic Landmark, a designation it received in 1972, when it was also placed on the National Register of Historic Places. It is now located in the Fort Montgomery State Historic Site.

Erogenous zone

An erogenous zone (from Greek ἔρως, érōs „love“ and English -genous „producing“ from Greek -γενής, -genḗs „born“) is an area of the human body that has heightened sensitivity, the stimulation of which may generate a sexual response, such as relaxation, the production of sexual fantasies, sexual arousal and orgasm.

Erogenous zones are located all over the human body, but the sensitivity of each varies, and depends on concentrations of nerve endings that can provide pleasurable sensations when stimulated. The touching of another person’s erogenous zone is regarded as an act of physical intimacy. Some people may resent stimulation in this manner while others may find it pleasing, and this may also depend on the relationship between the people.

Erogenous zones may be classified by the type of sexual response that they generate. Many people are gently aroused when their eyelids, eyebrows, temples, shoulders, hands, arms and hair are subtly touched. Gently touching or stroking of these zones stimulates a partner during foreplay and increases the arousal level. Also, the gentle massage or stroke of the abdominal area along with kissing or simply touching the navel can be a type of stimulation.

Erogenous zones are either nonspecific or specific.

In these zones, the skin is similar to normal-haired skin and has the normal high density of nerves and hair follicles. These areas include the sides and back of the neck, the inner arms, the axillae (armpits) and sides of the thorax (chest). An exaggerated tickle and anticipatory response are responsible for the heightened sensual response.

Specific zones are associated with sexual response, and include the lips and nipples in addition to areas of the genitals, notably the foreskin and corona of the glans penis, clitoris and rest of the vulva, and perianal skin. The neuroanatomy and neurophysiology of erogenous zones is partly unknown. These zones are apparently mucocutaneous skin. The rete ridges of the epithelium are well-formed and more of the nerves are close to the external surface of the skin than in normal-haired skin. These zones seem to have a high density of innervation, an efficiency of wound healing, and a capacity to stimulate generalized cerebral arousal. Moreover, a connection with the reward system seems also necessary.

Males can be aroused by stimulation to the sides of the glans and penis, upper side of the glans, the foreskin, the front side of the scrotum, the skin between the scrotum and anus perineum, and around the anus. The prostate gland may be stimulated from inside the rectum, such as by anal sex, or by applying pressure on the base of the perineum near the anus. Men who report the sensation of prostate and seminal vesicles stimulation often give descriptions similar to females‘ accounts of G-spot stimulation.

The foreskin, which carries the ridged band and lower frenular delta, has mucocutaneous end-organs extending from the distal margin to the point where hairy skin starts. The thin dermis and minimal subcutaneous tissue results in closely set nerve networks. Vater-Pacini corpuscles are present. The mucocutaneous end-organs are formed after birth, with few in newborn infants and many well-organized endings in adults.

Cold and Taylor state in 1999 that the foreskin is primary erogenous tissue. Alanis and Lucidi in 2004 describe this as speculative and unproven.

Parts of the vulva, especially the clitoris, are erogenous zones. While the vagina is not especially sensitive as a whole, its lower third (the area close to the entrance) has concentrations of the nerve endings that can provide pleasurable sensations during sexual activity when stimulated; this is also called the anterior wall of the vagina or the outer one-third of the vagina, and it contains the majority of the vaginal nerve endings, making it more sensitive to touch than the inner two-thirds of the vaginal barrel.

Within the anterior wall of the vagina, there is a patch of ribbed rough tissue which has a texture that is sometimes described as similar to the palate (the roof of a mouth) or a raspberry, and may feel spongy when a woman is sexually aroused. This is the urethral sponge, which may also be the location of the G-spot — a structure described as an area of the vagina that some women report is an erogenous zone which, when stimulated, can lead to sexual arousal, orgasms and female ejaculation. The existence of the G-spot and whether or not it is a distinct structure is debated among researchers, as reports of its location vary from woman to woman, it appears to be nonexistent in some women, and scientists commonly believe that it is an extension of the clitoris.

The lips and tongue are sensitive and can be stimulated by kissing and licking.

Many people find a gentle scalp massage, or any stimulation of the hair follicles, to be anywhere from relaxing to extremely stimulating.

The neck, clavicle area and the back of the neck are very sensitive in both males and females, which can be stimulated by licking, kissing or light caressing. Some people also like being bitten gently in these areas, often to the point that a „hickey“, or „love-bite“ is formed.

Some people find whispering or breathing softly in the ear to be pleasurable and relaxing, as well as licking, biting, caressing and/or kissing it especially the area of and behind the earlobe.

The areola and nipple contain Golgi-Mazzoni, Vater-Pacini and genital corpuscles. No Meissner’s corpuscles and few organized nerve endings are present. There are concentrations of nerve tissue in the area of ducts and masses of smooth muscle. The hair surrounding the areola adds additional sensory tissue. The mass of smooth muscle and glandular-duct tissue in the nipple and areola block the development of normal dermal nerve networks which are present in other erogenous regions and the development of special end organs. The entire breast has a network of nerve endings, and it has the same number of nerve endings no matter how large the breast is, so that larger breasts may need more stimulation than smaller ones.

Intense nipple stimulation may result in a surge in the production of oxytocin and prolactin which could have a significant effect on his or her genitals, to the point that some people of both sexes can achieve orgasm through nipple stimulation alone. Having the chest, breasts and nipples stimulated manually (hands), digitally (fingers, toes) and/or orally (mouth, lips, teeth, tongue) is a pleasurable experience for many people of both sexes.

Many people find stimulation (kissing, biting, scratching, tickling, caressing) of the abdomen to be pleasurable, especially close to the pubic region. It can cause strong arousal in men and women, in some even stronger than stimulation of the genitals. The navel is one of the many erogenous zones that has heightened sensitivity. In a 1982 study of eroticism in dress entitled „Skin to Skin“, Prudence Glynn claimed that the waist symbolized virginity and that it was the first place that a man would touch a woman „when indicating more than a formal courtesy“.

The navel and the region below when touched by the finger or the tip of the tongue result in the production of erotic sensations. Madonna has told in an interview to the SPIN magazine (May 1985 issue), „When I stick my finger in my belly button, I feel a nerve in the center of my body shoot up my spine.“ Some research suggests that the navel and the genitals have a common tissue origin, and in some people this connection still exists so that stimulation of the navel will elicit a distinct tickle in the genitals.

The sacrum, the triangular bone located near the base of the spine, is also an erogenous zone.

The skin of the arms, and specifically the softer skin of the inner arms and across the creased mid-arm bend covering the ventral side of the elbow, are highly sensitive to manual or oral stimulation. Caressing with fingers or tongue, more vigorous kneading, and butterfly kissing can initiate arousal and, in some cases, induce clitoral/vaginal orgasm or penile ejaculation without direct contact with the latter areas.[citation needed] The mid-arm bend is especially sensitive due to the thinner skin found there, which makes nerve endings more accessible.[citation needed] Arm sensitivity may be reduced or concentrated to a more narrow range by excessive muscularity or obesity on the one hand, or transformed to uncomfortable tenderness by excessive thinness on the other.

Some consider the armpits to be an erogenous zone. If pheromones exist for humans, they would likely be secreted by a mixture of liquid from the apocrine glands with other organic compounds in the body. George Preti, an organic chemist at the Monell Chemical Senses Center in Philadelphia and Winnefred Cutler of the University of Pennsylvania’s psychology department, discovered that women with irregular menstrual cycles became regular when exposed to male underarm extracts. They hypothesized that the only explanation was that underarms contain pheromones, as there was no other explanation for the effects, which mirrored how pheromones affect other mammals.

The fingertips have many nerves and are responsive to very light touches, like the brushing of a tongue, light fingernail scratching or teeth stroking. The sides of the fingers are somewhat less sensitive and more ticklish.[citation needed] Both light and firmer touches work well at the junction of the fingers. Human fingertips are the second-most sensitive parts of the body, after the tongue.

The thighs can be sensitive to touch.

An exaggerated tickle on the back of the legs and knees can also be sensitive for some.

Because of the concentration of nerve endings in the sole and digits of the human foot, and possibly to the close proximity of the area of the brain dealing with tactile sensations from the feet and the area dealing with sensations from the genitals, the sensations produced by sucking or licking the feet can be pleasurable to some people. Similarly, massaging the sole of the foot produces similar stimulation. Many people are extremely ticklish in the foot area, especially on the bottom of the soles.

Håkon Grønlien

Håkon Grønlien (født 27. oktober 1952 i Fåberg, død 2007 i Kristiansand) var en norsk grafiker. Grønlien var med å etablere fellesverksted for grafikere i Kristiansand og har vært verksmester ved Grafisk Verksted i Stavanger og Myren Grafikk i Kristiansand. Arbeider av Grønlien finnes i flere samlinger, blant annet i Nasjonalmuseet for Kunst, Arkitektur og Design, Stavanger kommune, Norsk kulturråd, Christiandsands Billedgalleri, og Oslo kommunes kunstsamlinger.

Tidligere arbeider fra slutten av 1970-tallet hadde en direkte politisk kommentar, mens senere arbeid blandet den politiske kommentaren med mer lyriske trekk og motiver fra naturen og gjennom virkemidler som tekst og fotografi. Grønlien jobbet også med maleri og tegning.

Grønlien utdannet seg ved fotolinjen ved Brundalen yrkesskole i Trondheim i 1973–1974 og ved Kunstskolen i Trondheim i 1974–1977. Etter endt utdannelse flyttet Grønlien til Kristiansand og var med på å bygge opp fellesverkstedet Myren grafikk sammen med Kjell Nupen, Jan Kolstad, Håkon Henriksen og Bengt Moberg. Grønlien var styremedlem i Bildende Sørlandskunstnere fra 1979–1981.

I 1990 ble han ansatt ved Kunstskolen i Rogaland som lærer i grafikk, tegning og maleri. I 1998 ble han verksmester ved Grafisk Verksted i Stavanger til han vendte tilbake til Kristiansand i 2003 og ble verksmester ved Myren Grafikk i 2004 til sin død i 2007.

Det har vært tre minneutstillinger for Grønlien. Den første på Agder Kunstsenter i Kristiansand i 2007, så i 2010 på Trondhjems Kunstforening og i 2012 på Rogaland Kunstsenter. Hver minneutstilling fokuserte på Grønliens arbeid i relasjon til regionen.

Bisenė

Bisenė or Bisena was a wooden fortress of the Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the Lithuanian Crusade. It was one of the Lithuanian defensive outposts along the Neman River and was burned down by the Teutonic Order in 1283 and 1316. Its location was long debated and often confused with Pieštvė, but after 1985 research of Romas Batūra it has been generally accepted to be Kartupėnai Hill Fort near the confluence of the Kartupis and Neman in Jurbarkas District Municipality, Lithuania. After the burning down of Kolainiai in 1291 and Bisenė in 1316, Junigeda (Veliuona) became the western-most Lithuanian fortress along the Neman.

Chronicler Peter von Dusburg noted that the Teutonic Order finalized its conquest of Prussia and launched the Lithuanian Crusade in winter 1283. The first target of the Teutons was Bisenė. Teutonic soldiers, commanded by the Prussian Landmeister Konrad von Thierberg, crossed the frozen Neman River and rigorously attacked the Lithuanian fortress in the morning. It fell in the afternoon and was burned to the ground. Surviving defenders were taken captive. A detachment of the Teutons raided surrounding area taking much loot. Dusburg noted that many Teutons were injured in the attacks and four brothers drowned in the Neman when frozen ice collapsed under their feet.

Lithuanians rebuilt the fortress. In early 1313, the Teutonic order completed the construction of Christmemel not far from Bisenė and used it as a base for further attacks. In summer 1313, Bisenė was attacked by Prussian Landmeister Heinrich von Plötzke and his men. Part of his force sailed via the Neman and used boats to construct a bridge across the river. The invaders used „war machines“ but the fortress withstood the assault. Landmeister Heinrich with men from Sambia and Natangia tried again in fall 1313. This time they burned the outer bailey but failed to take the main fortress.

Bisenė was manned by a Lithuanian garrison in one-month shifts, a weakness in security which was exploited by the Teutons. Sometime between 1307 and 1315, 22 brothers and 60 soldiers attacked 85 Lithuanians returning home after their shift. All Lithuanians were killed except for three wounded men who managed to escape. The same type of attack was repeated twice in 1316. The first attack, commanded by vicekomtur of Christmemel, saw 75 Lithuanians killed and five survivors who managed to escape. On 4 April 1316, three brothers with three squires departed Ragnit towards Bisenė at the end of the one-month shift. They killed six Lithuanians while other six escaped. As they approached Bisenė they saw that the fortress was left unattended. Using the opportunity, the Teutons burned it down. This time the fortress was not rebuilt.

Historical sources did not provide a description of the fortress and no archaeological excavations were carried out on the Kartupėnai Hill Fort. Therefore, available information about the fortress is very rudimentary. The northern and western edges of the hill collapsed into the Kartupis due to erosion making analysis more challenging. Based on preliminary observations, the fortress was 50 m × 30 m (164 ft × 98 ft) in size along the east–west axis. It was surrounded by wooden walls and steep slopes 20 m (66 ft) in height. Eastern side of the hill fort had a rampart, 7 m (23 ft) in height and 21 m (69 ft) in width, which transitions into a ditch, 2.5 m (8 ft 2 in) in depth and 25 m (82 ft) in width. To the east of the hill fort, there is a settlement covering an area of 1.3 ha (3.2 acres) but it has not been archaeologically excavated.

Vladimir Krakov

Vladimir Krakov (born in Belgrade, Serbia, on 17 June 1970) is a pen-name of Serbian writer and rock musician Vladimir Marković.

Krakov formed Presing along with Zoran Radovic at the age of 20, and very soon became appreciated for his specific manner of guitar playing and harmony treatment, being influenced to some extent by works and way of thinking of such authors as Glenn Branca, Brian Eno and Robert Fripp. Krakov released three albums with Presing, one with Tornado Ptice and one with Xanax. He also contributed as an author with Menson Benson Sextet, Kanda, Kodža i Nebojša and as an author of applied music for movies and television.

In his first book „In a Train to Disneyland“ (U vozu za Diznilend, SKC, Belgrade 1994), along with short stories, Krakov also published his essay on theory of poetry „Return of Poetry to Singing“, in which he claimed that poetry which exists only in written form reminds of a „once powerful tribe which now scrapes in reservation“. He advocated the singing as a natural incarnation of poetry, which should reemerge as more appreciated model, while „pencil“ poetry should remain what musical notation is to music.

Having for a long time favored music over literature, he only sporadically wrote and published short stories in periodicals. His first novel „King of Mosquitoes“ was written and published in English by an independent publisher 6th Colone (6de Kolonne) from Eindhoven, and later re-written as a significantly different novel in Serbian with the same title and motifs. „King of Mosquitoes is a skilfully narrated story about the Serbian generation X, colored by a blend of brilliant streetwise humor and sudden trips to phantasmagoria,“ (Richard Byrne New York Press 10 December 2002).

Only in 2011 Krakov decided to continue his writing career, having finished his second novel „House That Lessens“ (Kuća koja se smanjuje, Stubovi kulture, Belgrade 2012). After one of the major publishing houses in Post-Yugoslav region Stubovi Kulture (Pillars of Culture) announced that Krakov contracted with them, the author proclaimed having started working on his next novel titled „Voice-over“, to be also released in 2012.

Christine Anlauff

Christine Anlauff (* 1971 in Potsdam) ist eine deutsche Schriftstellerin.

Nach einer Ausbildung zur Buchhändlerin studierte Christine Anlauff Archäologie, Geschichte und Literaturwissenschaft in Berlin und Potsdam. 2005 erschien ihr Debütroman „Good morning Lehnitz“, der vor autobiografischem Hintergrund von einer Abiturklasse in einer NVA-Kaserne während der Wende erzählt. Überregionale Aufmerksamkeit erhielt sie auch durch einen Essay im Journal Das Magazin, in dem sie beschreibt, wie ihr Antrag auf Wohngeld aufgrund eines zu geringen Einkommens abgelehnt wurde. Anlauff stellt in dem Essay die These auf, dass man eine sechsköpfige Familie mit 13,50 Euro pro Tag ernähren und damit sogar glücklich sein könne. Die Arbeit von Christine Anlauff umfasst vorwiegend unterhaltsame Prosa, aber auch Lyrik und Essay sowie Hörspiele und ein Theaterstück für Kinder. Für ihre Werke erhielt sie mehrere Auszeichnungen, zuletzt den 1. Deutschen Katzenkrimipreis für ihren Roman „Katzengold“.

Cell–cell interaction

Cell–cell interaction refers to the direct interactions between cell surfaces that play a crucial role in the development and function of multicellular organisms. These interactions allow cells to communicate with each other in response to changes in their microenvironment. This ability to send and receive signals is essential for the survival of the cell. Interactions between cells can be stable such as those made through cell junctions. These junctions are involved in the communication and organization of cells within a particular tissue. Others are transient or temporary such as those between cells of the immune system or the interactions involved in tissue inflammation. These types of intercellular interactions are distinguished from other types such as those between cells and the extracellular matrix. The loss of communication between cells can result in uncontrollable cell growth and cancer.

Stable cell-cell interactions are required for cell adhesion within a tissue and controlling the shape and function of cells. These stable interactions involve cell junctions which are multiprotein complexes that provide contact between neighboring cells. Cell junctions allow for the preservation and proper functioning of epithelial cell sheets. These junctions are also important in the organization of tissues where cells of one type can only adhere to cells of the same tissue rather than to a different tissue.

Tight junctions are multi-protein complexes that hold cells of a same tissue together and prevent movement of water and water-soluble molecules between cells. In epithelial cells, they function also to separate the extracellular fluid surrounding their apical and basolateral membranes. These junctions exist as a continuous band located just below the apical surface between the membranes of neighboring epithelial cells. The tight junctions on adjacent cells line up so as to produce a seal between different tissues and body cavities. For example, the apical surface of gastrointestinal epithelial cells serve as a selective permeable barrier that separates the external environment from the body. The permeability of these junctions is dependent on a variety of factors including protein makeup of that junction, tissue type and signaling from the cells.

Tight junctions are made up of many different proteins. The four main transmembrane proteins are occludin, claudin, junctional adhesion molecules (JAMs) and tricellulins. The extracellular domains of these proteins form the tight junction barrier by making homophilic (between proteins of the same kind) and heterophilic interactions (between different types of proteins) with the protein domains on adjacent cells. Their cytoplasmic domains interact with the cell cytoskeleton to anchor them.

Of the three types of anchoring junctions, only two are involved in cell-cell interactions: adherens junctions and desmosomes. Both are found in many types of cells. Adjacent epithelial cells are connected by adherens junctions on their lateral membranes. They are located just below tight junctions. Their function is to give shape and tension to cells and tissues and they are also the site of cell-cell signaling. Adherens junctions are made of cell adhesion molecules from the cadherin family. There are over 100 types of cadherins, corresponding to the many different types of cells and tissues with varying anchoring needs. The most common are E-, N- and P-cadherins. In the adherens junctions of epithelial cells, E-cadherin is the most abundant.

Desmosomes also provide strength and durability to cells and tissues and are located just below adherens junctions. They are sites of adhesion and do not encircle the cell. They are made of two specialized cadherins, desmoglein and desmocollin. These proteins have extracellular domains that interact with each other on adjacent cells. On the cytoplasmic side, plakins form plaques which anchor the desmosomes to intermediate filaments composed of keratin proteins. Desmosomes also play a role in cell-cell signaling.

Gap junctions are the main site of cell-cell signaling or communication that allow small molecules to diffuse between adjacent cells. In vertebrates, gap junctions are composed of transmembrane proteins called connexins. They form hexagonal pores or channels through which ions, sugars, and other small molecules can pass. Each pore is made of 12 connexin molecules; 6 form a hemichannel on one cell membrane and interact with a hemichannel on an adjacent cell membrane. The permeability of these junctions is regulated by many factors including pH and Ca2+ concentration.

Receptor proteins on the cell surface have the ability to bind specific signaling molecules secreted by other cells. Cell signaling allows cells to communicate with adjacent cells, nearby cells (paracrine) and even distant cells (endocrine). This binding induces a conformational change in the receptor which, in turn, elicits a response in the corresponding cell. These responses include changes in gene expression and alterations in cytoskeleton structure. The extracellular face of the plasma membrane has a variety of proteins, carbohydrates, and lipids which project outward and act as signals. Direct contact between cells allows the receptors on one cell to bind the small molecules attached to the plasma membrane of different cell. In eukaryotes, many of the cells during early development communicate through direct contact.

Synaptic signaling, an integral part of nervous system activity, occurs between neurons and target cells. These target cells can also be neurons or other cell types (i.e. muscle or gland cells). Protocadherins, a member of the cadherin family, mediate the adhesion of neurons to their target cells at synapses otherwise known as synaptic junctions. In order to for communication to occur between a neuron and its target cell, a wave of depolarization travels the length of the neuron and causes neurotransmitters to be released into the synaptic junction. These neurotransmitters bind and activate receptors on the post-synaptic neuron thereby transmitting the signal to the target cell. Thus, a post-synaptic membrane belongs to the membrane receiving the signal, while a pre-synaptic membrane is the source of the neurotransmitter. In a neuromuscular junction, a synapse is formed between a motor neuron and muscle fibers. In vertebrates, acetylcholine released from the motor neuron acts as a neurotransmitter which depolarizes the muscle fiber and causes muscle contraction. A neuron’s ability to receive and integrate simultaneous signals from the environment and other neurons allows for complex animal behavior.

Plant cells are surrounded by cell walls which are barriers for cell-cell communication. This barrier is overcome by specialized junctions called plasmodesmata. They are similar to gap junctions, connecting the cytosol of adjacent cells. Small molecules (<1000 Da), such as ions, amino acids and sugars, can diffuse freely though plasmodesmata. These small molecules include signaling molecule and transcription factors. The size of the channel is also regulated to allow molecules up to 10,000 Da in size. The permeability of these channels is dependent on many factors, including Ca2+ concentration. An increase in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration will reversibly limit passage through the plasmodesmata. Unlike gap junctions, the cell membranes of adjacent cells merge to form a continuous channel called an annulus. Additionally, within the channel, there is an extension of the endoplasmic reticulum, called a desmotubule, which spans between the cells. The cell-cell interactions facilitated by plasmodesmata play an important role in development of plant cells and tissues and defense against viral infection.

Leukocytes or white blood cells destroy abnormal cells and also provide protection against bacteria and other foreign matter. These interactions are transitory in nature but are crucial as an immediate immune response. To fight infection, leukocytes must move from the blood into the affected tissues. This movement into tissues is called extravasation. It requires successive forming and breaking of cell-cell interactions between the leukocytes and the endothelial cells that line blood vessels. These cell-cell interactions are mediated mainly by a group of Cell Adhesion Molecules (CAMs) called selectins.

T helper cells, central to the immune system, interact with other leukocytes by releasing signals known as cytokines which activate and stimulate the proliferation of B cells and killer T cells.T helper cells also directly interact with macrophages, cells that engulf foreign matter and display antigens on its surface. T-helper cells that possess the appropriate receptors can bind to these antigens and proliferate resulting in T-helper cells that have the ability to identify the same antigens.

Coagulation or blood clotting relies on, in addition to the production of fibrin, interactions between platelets. When the endothelium or the lining of a blood vessel is damaged, connective tissue including collagen fibers is locally exposed. Initially, platelets stick to the exposed connective tissue through specific cell-surface receptors. This is followed by platelet activation and aggregation in which platelets become firmly attached and release chemicals that recruit neighboring platelets to the site of vascular injury. A meshwork of fibrin then forms around this aggregation of platelets to increase the strength of the clot.

Bacterial populations interact in a similar manner to cells in tissue. They communicate through physical interactions and signaling molecules such as homoserine lactones and peptides as a means to control metabolism and regulate growth . A common example and one of the most studied forms of bacterial cell interactions is biofilm. Biofilm is a cell aggregate that can be attached to biological or abiotic surfaces. Bacteria form biofilms to adapt to various environments such as changes in substrate availability. For example, the formation of biofilm increases a bacterial cell’s resistance to antibiotics compared to cells which are not part of the aggregate.

Cancer can result from the loss of cell-cell interaction. In normal cells, growth is controlled by contact inhibition in which contact with neighboring cells causes a stunt in cell growth. Contact inhibition is thought to be mediated by cadherins, proteins that play an important role in cell adhesion. This inhibition prevents cells from piling up on top of one another and forming mounds. However, in cancerous cells where expression of E-cadherin is lost, contact inhibition is lost and results in uncontrolled growth or proliferation, tumor formation, and metastasis.

In order for pathogenic bacteria to invade a cell, communication with the host cell is required. The first step for invading bacteria is usually adhesion to host cells. Strong anchoring, a characteristic that determines virulence, prevents the bacteria from being washed away before infection occurs. Bacterial cells can bind to many host cell surface structures such as glycolipids and glycoproteins which serve as attachment receptors. Once attached, the bacteria begin to interact with the host to disrupt its normal functioning and disrupt or rearrange its cytoskeleton. Proteins on the bacteria surface can interact with protein receptors on the host thereby affecting signal transduction within the cell. Alterations to signaling are favorable to bacteria because these alterations provide conditions under which the pathogen can invade. Many pathogens have Type III secretion systems which can directly inject protein toxins into the host cells. These toxins ultimately lead to rearrangement of the cytoskeleton and entry of the bacteria.

Cell–cell interactions are highly specific and are tightly regulated. Genetic defects and dysregulation of these interactions can cause many different disease. Dysregulation that leads to leukocyte migration into healthy tissues can cause conditions such as acute respiratory distress syndrome and some types of arthritis. The autoimmune disease pemphigus vulgaris results from autoantibodies to desmoglein and other normal body proteins. The autoantibodies disrupt the adhesion between epithelial cells. This causes blisters of the skin and mucous membranes. Mutations in the connexin genes cause 8 human diseases including heart malformations and neurosensory deafness.

Eight-man football defensive formations

There are several defensive formations commonly used in eight-man football. Defensive formations are classified by the total number of linemen and linebackers in the formation. The three basic types of formations in eight-man football are seven-man fronts, six-man fronts and five-man fronts.

As in 11-man football, formations are described in a (number of defensive linemen)-(number of linebackers)-(number of defensive backs) format.

Seven-man fronts are primarily used either against teams that pose no threat with the passing game or in short-yardage running situations. Even though linebackers have increased pass coverage duties, the emphasis is still on stopping the run.

Consists of either three down linemen or one down lineman and two up lineman, four linebackers and one safety. Linebackers have all pass coverage responsibilities with the safety playing deep cover. When three down lineman are used, outside linebackers have contain responsibilities plus their pass coverage.

The line consists of two tackles and two ends. Tackles line up anywhere between heads up on the offensive guards to the shoulders of the center. Responsible for run stop through the middle of the line. Ends line up in an up position on the outside shoulder of the widest offensive lineman. Acts as the „contain“ man.

There are two outside linebackers and one middle linebacker. The middle linebacker lines up between the tackles off the line of scrimmage; this player stops the run up the middle of the formation and has pass coverage on running backs. Outside linebackers line up between the tackles and ends off the line of scrimmage, stopping the runs through the gap between the offensive guard and offensive end (the „B gap“) and has pass coverage on the tight or split ends. The lone defensive back plays a deep zone in pass coverage.

This defense consists of three down linemen, two up linemen, two linebackers and one safety; usually a goal line defense.

Six-man fronts are usually the most balanced between run stop and pass coverage.

The 4-2-2 defense consists of two tackles, two ends, two linebackers, and two defensive backs. This defense is generally considered to be a balance between run and pass defense.

The line consists of two tackles and two ends. The tackles line up usually somewhere between directly opposite the offensive guards and the center; rarely will they be outside the guards. Their job is to control their assigned gaps on run plays and pressure the quarterback on passes. The ends line up on the outside shoulder of the widest offensive lineman; their main responsibility is to turn running plays back inside to the linebackers and defensive backs (in order to contain the run). They occasionally have pass coverage responsibilities and depending on personnel and scheme, may cover split ends and slot receivers. Some teams designate their best contain man to always play the wide side of the field.

The linebackers‘ main role is run support; they line up anywhere between the defensive ends. They can be stacked on the tackles or offset either inside or outside, depending on the tackles‘ alignment. Pass coverage responsibilities are for running backs coming out of the backfield, running backs in the slot formation, or, in some situations, tight ends. The defensive backs‘ first concern is to watch for the pass; they are responsible for the ends. They may cover a running back in the slot back position, leaving the tight end for the linebacker. In run plays, they act as a second set of linebackers.

The 3-3-2 formation consists of three linemen, three linebackers and two defensive backs. It is one of the most flexible formations, allowing multiple looks and blitz packages and freeing the middle linebacker from most pass coverage responsibilities; this way, the middle linebacker can be used for stopping the run.

The linemen are run stoppers and pass rushers. The nose tackle lines up at any point in between the inside shoulders of the offensive guards. Responsible for stopping running plays through the middle of the line. Either stands the center up or shots a gap. The defensive ends line up in a down position between the outside shoulder to heads up on the tight end, or in an up position on the outside shoulder of the tight in. In the down position has run stop in the „B gap“. In the up position is the contain man.

Linebackers are primarily run stoppers, after that have pass coverage. The middle linebacker lines up in between the offensive guards. This player’s main job is to stop the run; to be most effective, the middle linebacker should be the team’s best tackler and be able to play from sideline to sideline. Pass coverage is a short zone on any backs coming through the middle of the line. When blitzing, the middle linebacker takes the „A gap“ opposite of the nose tackle, becoming a de facto fourth lineman. The outside linebackers line up behind the defensive ends. They have pass coverage on running backs coming out of the backfield to the flats, can cover slotbacks but may switch with defensive backs. Defensive backs look for the pass first and then the run. They have coverage responsibilities for tight and split ends, but may cover slotbacks and leave tight ends for the outside linebackers.

This formation consists of three down linemen, two up linemen, one linebacker, and two defensive backs.

Five-man fronts are used in passing situations or against a poor running team.

This formation consists of one down lineman, two up linemen, two linebackers, and three defensive backs. This formation is also known as 3-2-Monster, the monster being a safety and two cornerbacks in a man coverage. The 3-2-Monster is the mandated defensive formation in arena football and the base formation in most leagues of professional indoor football.

This formation consists of two down linemen, two up linemen, one linebacker, three defensive backs.

Japanische Fußballnationalmannschaft

Die japanische Fußballnationalmannschaft ist die nationale Fußballauswahl von Japan. Sie wird von der Japan Football Association (JFA) kontrolliert und seit 2014 von Javier Aguirre trainiert. Sie zählt seit Beginn der 1990er Jahre zu den stärksten Mannschaften Asiens. Sie gewann bisher viermal die Fußball-Asienmeisterschaft und ist damit Rekordtitelträger.

1998, 2002, 2006, 2010 und 2014 nahm die Mannschaft auch an der Endrunde der Fußballweltmeisterschaft teil.

Obwohl Japan als eines der ersten Länder bereits 1917 ein Fußballspiel absolvierte, blieb Fußball nur eine Randsportart und konnte sich nicht gegen den beliebten Volkssport Baseball durchsetzen. Daran änderte auch der Gewinn der Bronzemedaille bei den Olympischen Sommerspielen 1968 nichts. Erst 1991 wurde beschlossen, die halbprofessionelle Japan Soccer League zur professionellen J. League umzugestalten. Am 15. Mai 1993 wurden dort die ersten Spiele angepfiffen.

Bereits ein Jahr zuvor hatte die japanische Nationalmannschaft ihren ersten Titel bei der Fußball-Asienmeisterschaft 1992 im eigenen Land gewonnen. Sie gewann das Finale gegen den zweimaligen Titelträger Saudi-Arabien durch einen Treffer von Takuya Takagi mit 1:0. Die Qualifikation für die Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft 1994 im Oktober 1993 war jedoch ein Rückschlag: Im letzten Qualifikationsspiel gegen den Irak musste die japanische Mannschaft in der 92. Spielminute den Ausgleich hinnehmen und somit Saudi-Arabien und Südkorea den Vortritt lassen. Dieses Ereignis ist bis heute als Tragödie von Doha bekannt. Bei der Fußball-Asienmeisterschaft 1996 gelang es den Japanern nicht, ihren Titel von 1992 zu verteidigen.

Zur ersten Teilnahme an der Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft kam es dann 1998. In der entscheidenden Qualifikationsphase hatten die Japaner den zweiten Platz hinter Südkorea belegt und mussten nun ein Play-Off Spiel gegen den Iran, den zweiten der anderen Gruppe, bestreiten. In Johor Bahru gewann Japan schließlich mit 3:2 nach einem Golden Goal und qualifizierte sich somit für die Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft 1998 in Frankreich. Dort gab es allerdings je eine 0:1-Niederlage gegen Argentinien und Kroatien sowie eine 1:2-Niederlage gegen Jamaika. Masashi Nakayama erzielte den ersten Treffer Japans bei einer WM-Endrunde.

Bei der Fußball-Asienmeisterschaft 2000 errang Japan erneut den Titel, wiederum wurde Saudi-Arabien mit 1:0 bezwungen. Torschütze war Shigeyoshi Mochizuki.

Den größten internationalen Erfolg feierte man allerdings bei der WM 2002 in Südkorea und Japan, als die Mannschaft von Philippe Troussier nach Siegen über Tunesien und Russland das Achtelfinale erreichte. Dort schied man allerdings nach einer 0:1-Niederlage gegen den späteren WM-Dritten Türkei aus. Beim Konföderationen-Pokal 2001, der zuvor ebenfalls von Japan und Südkorea ausgerichtet wurde, erreichten die Japaner das Finale und unterlagen hierbei nur Frankreich mit 0:1.

Seinen dritten Asienmeisterschaftstitel gewann Japan bei der Fußball-Asienmeisterschaft 2004 in China. Dort wurde China im Finale mit 3:1 besiegt. Beim Konföderationen-Pokal 2005 in Deutschland schied Japan trotz des Sieges gegen Europameister Griechenland (1:0) und einem 2:2-Unentschieden gegen Weltmeister Brasilien aufgrund der schlechteren Tordifferenz gegenüber den Brasilianern in der Vorrunde aus.

Bei der Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft 2006 traf Japan in der Vorrunde auf Australien, Kroatien und Brasilien. Bereits im ersten Spiel gegen die Australier gab es eine 1:3-Niederlage, wobei Japan in der 85. Minute noch geführt hatte. Ein torloses Unentschieden gegen Kroatien und eine weitere Niederlage gegen Brasilien (1:4) reichten nicht mehr zum Weiterkommen aus. Nach der WM übernahm Ivica Osim die Mannschaft vom Brasilianer Zico, der seit 2002 amtierender Trainer war.

Die Qualifikation zur Fußball-Asienmeisterschaft 2007 wurde souverän mit nur einer einzigen Niederlage (0:1 gegen Saudi-Arabien in Jeddah) absolviert. Bei der Endrunde trafen die Titelverteidiger auf Vietnam, Katar und die Vereinigten Arabischen Emirate. Nach dem Gewinn der Gruppe, gewann man im Viertelfinale durch Elfmeterschießen 5:4 gegen Australien. Im Halbfinale verloren die Japaner dann gegen Saudi-Arabien 2:3. Auch das Spiel um den dritten Platz ging verloren. Südkorea gewann mit 6:5 nach Elfmeterschießen (0:0 nach regulärer Spielzeit).

In der Qualifikation zur Weltmeisterschaft 2010 hatte sich Japan als Gruppenzweiter durchgesetzt und traf in der Vorrunde auf Dänemark, Kamerun und die Niederlande. Durch Siege gegen die in der Weltrangliste besser platzierten Mannschaften aus Dänemark und Kamerun, bei einer Niederlage gegen die Niederländer, qualifizierte sich die japanische Mannschaft erstmals außerhalb Japans für ein WM-Achtelfinale, in dem sie auf Paraguay traf, und nach einem torlosen Spiel im Elfmeterschießen mit 3:5 unterlag.

Bei der Asienmeisterschaft 2011 konnte Japan zum vierten Mal den Titel gewinnen und ist damit alleiniger Rekordhalter. Die Teilnahme an der Copa América 2011, zu der Japan als Gast eingeladen war, wurde nach dem Tōhoku-Erdbeben und Tsunami sowie der daraus resultierenden Nuklearkatastrophe von Fukushima wegen der verschobenen Ligaspiele und der Probleme mit der Freistellung der bei europäischen Vereinen tätigen Spieler abgesagt.

Am 4. Juni 2013 qualifizierte sich Japan durch ein 1:1 gegen Australien vorzeitig als erste Mannschaft nach Gastgeber Brasilien für die Fußball-Weltmeisterschaft 2014. Bei der WM-Endrunde scheiterten sie jedoch bereits in der Gruppenphase: Nach Niederlagen gegen die Elfenbeinküste und Kolumbien sowie einem torlosen Remis gegen Griechenland kamen die Japaner nicht über den letzten Platz in der Gruppe C hinaus.

Japan ist mit vier Titeln Rekordsieger der Asienmeisterschaft, wobei die Mannschaft erst 1988 erstmals an der Endrunde teilnehmen konnte.

Japan ist mit fünf Teilnahmen dritthäufigster Teilnehmer nach Brasilien und Mexiko.

Als inoffizielles Vorläuferturnier gilt der Dynasty Cup:

Kader für die WM-Qualifikationsspiele gegen Afghanistan und Syrien im März 2016:

Stand: Nach dem Spiel gegen Syrien am 29. März 2016

(Stand: 3. Juni 2016)

Bisher gab es kein Länderspiel gegen Liechtenstein.

Nationalmannschaften aktueller Verbände der AFC:
Afghanistan | Australien | Bahrain | Bangladesch | Bhutan | Brunei | China | Guam | Hongkong | Indien | Indonesien | Irak | Iran | Japan | Jemen | Jordanien | Kambodscha | Katar | Kirgisistan | Kuwait | Laos | Libanon | Macau | Malaysia | Malediven | Mongolei | Myanmar | Nepal | Nordkorea | Nördliche Marianen | Oman | Osttimor | Pakistan | Palästina | Philippinen | Saudi-Arabien | Singapur | Sri Lanka | Südkorea | Syrien | Tadschikistan | Taiwan | Thailand | Turkmenistan | Usbekistan | Vereinigte Arabische Emirate | Vietnam

Nationalmannschaften ehemaliger Verbände der AFC:
Föderation Malaya | Israel | Kasachstan | Nordjemen | Nordvietnam | Südjemen | Südvietnam

Sonstige National- und Auswahlmannschaften in Asien:
Armenien | Aserbaidschan | Georgien | Russland | Sowjetunion | Türkei | Vereinigte Arabische Republik | Zypern

Nationalmannschaften der Verbände der übrigen Konföderationen der FIFA:
CAF (Afrika) | CONCACAF (Nord- und Zentralamerika, Karibik) | CONMEBOL (Südamerika) | OFC (Ozeanien) | UEFA (Europa)

Assoziiertes AFC-Mitglied, jedoch nicht FIFA-Mitglied.

1998 | 2002 | 2006 | 2010 | 2014 | Überblick